The Implementation of Problem Based Learning
By RATE (Romania) on Aug 25, 2020  In 1
The Implementation of Problem Based Learning to Improve Mathematics Learning Outcomes of First Grade Students
by Nurmega Sirait, State Senior High School 2 Bandar, Simalungun, North Sumatera, Indonesia
Keywords: Problem Based Learning, Learning Process, Sine and Cosine
Abstract
This research has as purpose to boost the student learning process and improve student mathematical learning outcomes in first grade MIA 4 State Senior High School 2 Bandar, Simalungun second semester 2018/2019 within the subject of trigonometry (Sine and Cosine), to overcome a problem regarding the regulation of Sine Cosine after following learning material within the Problem Based Learning Model. This research used the class action research method. This research is a reflective and collaborative research which means the researcher collaborates with the mathematics teacher. The teacher takes a role as researcher carrying the action research. Action research in this analysis will be related to the Problem Based Learning model to improve student problem solving of Mathematics in the first grade of Senior High School. The learning process on every cycle has been improved more than before. During the first meeting, most students do not have any courage to state their own opinion and conclude the material they haves been taught, during the second meeting, there are more student who already have the courage to state their own opinion, the same thing happens during the third meeting. Based on the explanation of analysis result above, it can be concluded that the learning process has been improved to be abetter process after obtained action research.
Introduction
Mathematics as a subject has learning purposes (Fauzan, 2002). Regulation from the ministry of education and culture explained that the purpose of mathematics at school is for students to obtain the ability of: (1) understanding the concept of mathematic, (2) using pattern as an assumption to overcome a problem, and generalize it based on the correct data and phenomena, (3) using logic on characteristic, manipulating mathematic formula, making simplification, analyzing the component on overcome the problem inside and outside the concept of mathematic (such as mathematic in real life, knowledge and technology) (4) communicating the idea, (5) appreciating the function of mathematic in real life, (6) doing motoric activities which require mathematical knowledge (physical activities which needs mathematic counting), (7) using the simple learning model and technology for mathematical activities (Depdiknas, 2008).
Susanto stated that before beginning their lesson teachers should prepare any material they will use to learn and the learning model they will use to teach, prepare questions to make an active learning process for students, understand student condition regarding their strength and weakness, and understand student knowledge level (Susanto, 2013). Besides, as students, they need to have basic knowledge and understanding of the subject.
The achieved mathematical level can be seen by success level and completeness of student mathematical outcomes. The mathematical learning outcomes standard of every school is for the students to be able to reach the standard of mathematical score. The completeness of student learning outcomes can be seen in student outcomes after mathematical learning process. Students include as complete the learning process if their score or learning outcomes pass the score standard(Johnson, Whittington, Scholes, Angwin, & Regner, 2014)
First grade MIA 4 on State Senior High School 2 Bandar Simalungun has 35 students, 15 male students and 20 female students.Based on the data of main mathematical material, there are still many students who obtains a score under the required standard. Out of the 35 students of MIA 4, there are 28 students (80%) that still obtain the score under standard (65). It means there are only 7 students who passed the standard.
Based on the problem above, it is needed a learning alternative that involve students active participation and willingness to collaborate, discuss and build an argumentation with their classmates to find the concept of mathematics within the problem related to their real life problem.That participation has a purpose to build a closer relationship between students and mathematics, thus students will understand the benefit of mathematics for their daily life. It can be used to grow new meaningful experience of the learning process and it will help to improve student learning outcomes. By overcoming the contextual problem, students will gain and build certain knowledge, improve their critical thinking to solve a problem. One alternative learning method which can be used is the model of Problem Based Learning (PBL)
The Problem Based Learning model is a learning model which focus on students learning experience consisting of observation and problem solving especially daily life problem solving (Ommundsen, 2013). The teacher does not only stand in front of the class guiding students to solve their problem by giving step by step assistance, but also going around the class to facilitate student discussion, asking questions and helping students to realize the importance of learning mathematics (Nakada, Okada, Yoshihara, Namiki, & Hiroi, 2017)
This research has as purpose to boost the student learning process and improve student mathematical learning outcomes in first grade MIA 4 State Senior High School 2 Bandar, Simalungun second semester 2018/2019 within the subject of trigonometry (Sine and Cosine), to overcome a problem regarding the regulation of Sine Cosine after following learning material within the Problem Based Learning Model.
Research methodology
This research used the class action research method. This research is a reflective and collaborative research which means the researcher collaborated with the mathematics teacher(Moleong, 2017). Teacher takes a role as researcher carrying the action research. Action research in this analysis will be related to the Problem Based Learning model to improve students problem solving of mathematics in the first grade of Senior High School.
This research was done in the first grade Senior High School MIA 4 State Senior High School 2 Bandar, Simalungun during the second semester 2018/2019. The subjects of this research were35 students (20 female students and 15 male students and they all have heterogeneous knowledge and ability
The Data Collection technique used in this research is observation technique and learning outcomes test technique (by testing the student learning outcomes). The observation technique is a technique that should be done with careful observation and systematic writing. Observation is done on every meeting during the learning process by filling an observation sheet that has been made (based on resources). It has as purpose to collect the data regarding the student learning outcomes based on the test. The learning outcomes test has been taken twice by daily testing after the end of the learning process of each cycle. The first test was taken during the fourth meeting and the second test was taken during the eight meeting.
Data analysis technique was done through student mathematic learning outcomes and it carried out by descriptive statistical analysis. The Descriptive Statistic is a statistical method that has as task to organize and analyze the data in numerical form, it has as purpose to give a good description, simple and clear regarding one accident or event. Thus, it will produce an explanation or meaning (Sudijono, 2009).Data analysis regarding student mathematical learning outcomes was done by observing student individual learning results. And the student mathematical learning outcomes were analyzed by how those scores will achieve the score standard and indicator.
Result and Discussion
The observation technique here involved the learning model of Problem Based Learning to improve student learning outcomes of first grade MIA Senior High School 2 Bandar Simalungun district. The material will focus on Sine and Cosine, solving the problem regarding Sine and Cosine during the second semester 2018/2019 year during April to May 2019.
The learning process observation was done twice a week, Tuesday and Friday. The observation of the learning process involved two kinds of cycle and twice a daily test. Cycle I included meeting three times and one daily test. Cycle II also included a meeting three times and a daily test.
a) Cycle I
Cycle I included a meeting three times during the learning process through the application of the learning model called Problem Based Learning and a meeting for daily test.
There are some phases on cycle I activities, explained below:
a. First phase is explaining the problem related to Sine and Cosine rules in daily activities using the help of focus material. Based on the purpose of Problem Based Learning, students were expected to decide the material of triangle aspects within the rules of sine and solve the contextual problem related to sine.
b. Second Phase organized all students to learn, researcher asked student to identify the problem they know based on the available problem, and working on their test work sheet, here researcher found there are some students still not paying attention to the learning process. Researcher asked student to discuss/apply their idea within a group to arrange a concept of mathematic based on the material they have learned before. It has a purpose to solve their problem and make useful strategies regarding their problem.
c. Third phase is guiding students to have their individual analysis and group analysis, students started to solve their daily test based on the description. Here, researcher found that students were still confused on how they should correctly solve the problem.
d. Fourth phase student improved and explained their result.
e. Fifth phase is evaluation and observing the problem solving process, after which students presented their group result in front of the class. Furthermore, researcher asked students from other groups to state their opinion. Here, when the teacher asked students to state their opinion, most of them answered that their group has the same opinion as what was it presented by the current group
During cycle I which included three meetings and a daily test, Researcher and teacher discussed through an observation sheet. Based on the observation sheet and the discussion there resulted some weakness either from the teacher or from student. That weakness will be explained below:
(a) There are some learning steps which could not be implemented as what was already planned in the learning plan such as, group presentation, formative test which was supposed to be student homework.
(b) The planned time allocation on some steps is not related to the real time.Real time happens to be longer than the planned time especially during the first and second meetings. Students need longer time for their daily test sheet and writing the discussion report.
(c) Students still have passive participation when responding to the researcher’s question during the introduction activity and making a conclusion
(d) On solving their worksheet, several students tended to solve it individually. Thus, it caused minimum discussion because students tend to directly ask teacher without any discussion. Besides, students did not ask the teacher based on the order, and it made a mess on class condition
(e) During presentation time, the presenter did not have a good way to present their group discussion. Students tend to read their discussion but not present it for the other. Moreover, only several students had the courage to state their opinion because other students did not pay attention.
(f) Teacher did not take clear action against the students who were not serious in class, telling jokes and copying their friends work.
b. Cycle II
In this cycle, teacher still implemented some learning steps as what already implemented in cycle I, however it is implemented along with an effort to improve the weakness in cycle I, here the teacher started to used problem based learning.
Based on the weakness of cycle I, there are some improvement changes on cycle II learning plan as follows:
(a) Teacher as researcher pays more attention to each step of the learning process based on the learning plan; therefore, the learning process could work as what has already been planned before.
(b) Teacher has to be stricter on discipline and utilize the remained learning time as well as possible. In time students will be able to manage and get used to learning time, thus, time allocation of learning process will be as what it was planned before.
(c) At beginning of the learning process, teacher tried to use more communicative language increase their motivation and tried to involve an active opinion from students
(d) Teacher will be more strict to organize students, thus they can work along within their group and did the same action for every group
(e) Researcher should give strict instructions to students regarding how they could ask a question to the teacher; students should discuss it first and then ask a question to the teacher. In this case, teacher instructed students with a good ability to teach their friend.
(f) Teacher has a job to increase student motivation to be better students and more active on group discussion, giving opinion and more confident on stating their conclusion and group discussion result. Teacher need to remind their students that presentation is about presenting their group discussion not only reading what they wrote on the paper.
(g) Teacher has to be stricter to student who makes jokes during class and only know how to copy their friend’s work.
On second cycle, researcher as teacher has improved the weaknesses based on first cycle, therefore this learning process has been improved comparing to the first cycle. Discussion went according to plan, whether group discussion or class discussion. Students sit in groups based on the order in every meeting. Students improve their ability of stating their opinion and conclusion. During this second cycle, generally students haves been getting used to the learning process they follow, thus teacher is not that hard on guiding students. Overall, the entire student and teacher activity did experience an improvement on each meeting. Based on the reflection of cycle two, researcher decided not to have another cycle because this research only needs two cycles.
C. Observation Result Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis has to be done to understand the comparison before action research and after action research. Relation between every step on Problem Based learning that has been planned with learning process can be seen by worksheet or observation sheet on each meeting. The data obtained by student activity sheet and teacher activity sheet, researcher has their own observation sheet on learning process that can be used for further analysis.
Learning process on every cycle has been improved more than before. In more detail: during the first meeting, most students do not have any courage to state their own opinion and conclude the material they have learned, during the second meeting, there are more students who already have courage to state their own opinion, the same thing happened on the third meeting. Thus, on the fourth meeting to seventh meeting students were guided by researcher to conclude the material together based on the learning plan.
Based on the explanation of analysis results above, it can be concluded that the learning process has been improved to be a better process after obtained action research.
Students achieve good learning outcomes, if they achieve student score standard which is in this case students gaining scores of 70 or more. Based on the learning result, it indicates that there are still many students who have not been able to achieve the score standard. Student completeness according to standard of Sine Cosine material on mathematical subject will be explained in the distribution frequency table below:
Table 4.1 Frequency Distribution of Student Learning Outcomes first Grade MIA 4 Senior High School 2 Bandar
Interval 
Student Frequency 
Criteria 

Basic Score 
Daily Test I 
Daily Test II 

15 – 24 25  34 35  44 45  54 55 – 64 
2 3 2 10 10 
0 1 0 7 7 
0 0 0 0 2 
Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete 
65 – 74 75  84 85  94 95 – 104 
3 4 0 0 
8 6 6 0 
13 8 10 2 
Complete Complete Complete Complete 
Total Complete Student
Percentages of Students who achieve the standard 
7
20,0% 
20
57,1% 
33
94,3% 

Based on the results above, it can be seen that student improvement on learning outcomes has been achieved from basic score, daily test I and daily test II. On basic score, the number of students who did not complete the standard is 28. On daily test I and daily test II, the number of students decreased to 18 and then 5 students. On the opposite, students that passed the standard of score or has been complete making an improvement from 7 students (20,0%) on basic score to 20 students (57,1%) on daily test I, and 33 students (94,3%) on daily test II.
The explanation above showed that there is an improvement in the learning outcomes and changes happen after research action is implemented on the learning process. Specifically, after research action as the following happen: (1) Student frequency on interval under the standard has been decreased from basic score, Daily test I to Daily test II;(2) Frequency of higher score per student has been improved (3) Complete student percentages on Daily test I and daily test II is higher than the amount on Students that passed the standard on Basic Score
Conclusion and suggestions
Based on the result and discussion of this research, because there has been an improvement in student learning outcomes, it can be concluded that the application of Problem Based Learning on the learning process of mathematics can help to repair and improve student mathematic learning outcomes on basic competences 3.9 explained the rule of Sine and Cosine. And overcome the problem related to Sine and Cosine.
Based on the explanation and conclusion above, the researcher recommend learning process based on Problem Based Learning to improve student mathematical ability as below:
1. Problem Based Learning model should be implemented for the next learning process. It is because this model can help to improve student learning process and make students have their active participation when learning, discussing and stating their opinion, drawing a conclusion, responding to another group presentation and solving contextual problems on daily tests.
2. In order to maintain a good learning model of Problem Based Learning, teacher should organize the time based on learning plan and the entire activities will be done as what is already planned.
References
Depdiknas. (2008). Pedoman Pengembangan Bahan Ajar. Jakarta: Direktorat Jendral Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah.
Fauzan, A. (2002). Applying Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) in Teaching Geometry in Indonesian Primary Schools (Disertasi Doktoral). Thesis University of Twente, Enschede.  With Refs.  With Summary in Ducth.
Johnson, G., Whittington, R., Scholes, K., Angwin, D., & Regner, P. (2014). Exploring Strategy. In Pearson Education Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Moleong, L. J. (2017). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif (Edisi Revisi). In PT. Remaja Rosda Karya.
Nakada, A., Okada, Y., Yoshihara, A., Namiki, A., & Hiroi, N. (2017). Problembased learning. Journal of the Medical Society of Toho University. https://doi.org/10.14994/tohoigaku:2017005
Ommundsen, P. (2013). Problembased learning. In Inspiring Students: Case Studies on Teaching Required Courses. https://doi.org/10.4324/97813150421699
Susanto, A. (2013). Teori Belajar Dan Pembelajaran Di Sekolah Dasat. Biomass Chem Eng.
Biodata: Nurmega Sirait is a Mathematics Teacher at SMA Negeri 2 Bandar. She graduated from IKIP Negeri Manado University in 1998.
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